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Senior Investigator

Leonardo G. Cohen, M.D.

Human Cortical Physiology and Neurorehabilitation Section

Building 10 Room 7D54
9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda MD 20892
Office: (301) 496-9782

Dr. Cohen received his MD from the University of Buenos Aires. He did his neurology residency at Georgetown University and received postdoctoral training in Clinical Neurophysiology at the Department of Neurology, University of California (Irvine) and in Motor Control and Movement Disorders at the Human Motor Control Section, NINDS. In 1998 he became chief of the Human Cortical Physiology Section, NINDS. He received  the Humboldt (Humboldt Foundation) and Barbro J Johansson Award in Stroke Recovery (World Stroke Organization). He is an elected member of the American Neurological Association. Dr. Cohen's lab is interested in the mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the human central nervous system in relation to motor learning and memory formation and consolidation and in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for recovery of function after brain lesions based on the understanding of these mechanisms.

The goal of our activity is to understand the mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the human central nervous system and to develop novel therapeutic approaches for recovery of function based on these advances. Our work has focused on the human motor system to understand skill acquisition, memory formation, consolidation and reconsolidating. We study cortical reorganization and brain network dynamics underlying behavior in patients with CNS lesions in particular stroke and traumatic brain injury. In healthy volunteers, we study cortical plasticity associated with motor skill learning and memory formation.

We utilize different techniques in the context of exploratory and well defined hypothesis-driven investigations including transcranial magnetic (TMS) and DC (tDCS) stimulation, fMRI, TMS in combination with fMRI, MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), PET scanning and magnetoencephalography (MEG). We are interested in the development of these techniques to help us to understand mechanisms of human plasticity and to modulate human brain processing. Our research protocols in healthy volunteers are geared to identify mechanisms of human neuroplasticity and to develop interventional approaches to enhance them when they play a beneficial role and down-regulate them when they are maladaptive. Advances in this understanding in healthy volunteers are subsequently applied to patients with neurological conditions like stroke in attempts to enhance neurorehabilitative processes. More recently, we started to work on decoding of brain activity spatiotemporal patterns underlying memory of errors, working memory and different forms of consolidation of skill learning.  Present activity in the lab includes characterization of replay events in awake humans related to different stages of motor learning.

Our future goals are to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying plasticity of function in humans. On the basis of these insights, we are engaged in translational efforts to develop rational rehabilitative interventions to improve motor disability after stroke in particular using behavioral as well as open- and closed-loop brain stimulation techniques. In patients with severe hand paralysis, we use an MEG-based brain computer interface to control grasping motions of an orthosis attached to the paralyzed hand.



Cohen Lab Research
 Our brain selects and maintains information during short time windows in a way that is essential to reasoning and learning. We applied multivariate analyses to time-resolved MEG brain signals finding that the selection of information relies on sustained oscillatory activity in a network that includes the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex while memory content is transiently replayed in an occipito-temporal network that differs from encoding. These results characterized differentiated spatiotemporal activity underlying encoding, selection, and maintenance of information during working memory.

Cohen Lab Research
Here, we looked at the within-seconds time course of early human procedural learning over alternating short periods of practice and rest that constitute a typical early online training session (left hand side). We found that performance did not markedly change over short periods of practice. On the other hand, performance improvements in between practice periods, when subjects were at rest, were significant and accounted for early procedural learning.  These offline improvements were more prominent in early training trials when the learning curve was steep and no performance decrements during preceding practice periods were present. At the neural level, simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings showed an anatomically defined signature of this phenomenon (right hand side). Beta band brain oscillatory activity in a predominantly contralateral fronto-parietal network predicted rest-period performance improvements. Thus, we report a rapid form of offline consolidation that substantially contributes to early skill learning and may extend the concept of consolidation to a time scale in the order of seconds, rather than the hours or days traditionally accepted.



Oscillatory activity within sensorimotor networks is characterized by time-varying changes in phase and power. The influence of interactions between sensorimotor oscillatory phase and power on human motor function, like corticospinal output, is unknown. We addressed this gap in knowledge by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the human motor cortex during electroencephalography recordings in 20 healthy participants. Motor evoked potentials, a measure of corticospinal excitability, were categorized offline based on the mu (8–12 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz) oscillatory phase and power at the time of TMS. Phase-dependency of corticospinal excitability was evaluated across a continuous range of power levels using trial-by-trial linear mixed-effects models. For mu, there was no effect of PHASE or POWER (P > 0.51), but a significant PHASE × POWER interaction (P = 0.002). The direction of phase-dependency reversed with changing mu power levels: corticospinal output was higher during mu troughs versus peaks when mu power was high while the opposite was true when mu power was low. A similar PHASE × POWER interaction was not present for beta oscillations (P > 0.11). We conclude that the interaction between sensorimotor oscillatory phase and power gates human corticospinal output to an extent unexplained by sensorimotor oscillatory phase or power alone.


  • Human Cortical Physiology Section Repository Protocol ( 09-N-0156 )
  • Screening Protocol for Patients with Stroke ( 10-N-0012 )
  • Modulation of motor function by stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous system.  ( 07-N-0122 )
  • Neural Dynamics and Connectivity in Response Inhibition and Traumatic Brain Injury ( 10-N-0185 )
  • Large Scale Online Studies of Motor Responses and Cognition (19-N-0012)
  • Influence of Brain Oscillation-Dependent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor Function (17-N-0168)
  • Neural Basis of Decision Making Deficits in Traumatic Brain Injury (14-N-0083)


Christian Gerloff
Joseph Classen
Robert Chen
Cathrin Butefisch
Ulf Ziemann
George Wittenberg
Adriana Conforto
Agnes Floel
Friedhelm Hummel
Pascal Giraux
Pablo Celnik
Nam-Jong Paik
Monica Perez
Janine Reis
Michael Dimyan
Heidi Schambra
Surjo Soekadar
Eran Dayan
Nitzan Censor
Marco Sandrini
Sook-Lei Liew
Olewole Awosika

Staff Image
  • Ethan Buch, Ph.D.
    Staff Scientist

  • Nitzan Censor, Ph.D.
    Senior Scientist

  • Mimi Hayward, Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)
    Nurse Practitioner

  • Sara Hussain, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Brian Johnson, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • William Kistler, B.S.
    Graduate Student

  • Alexander Kuzin, Ph.D.
    Research Fellow

  • Kelly Michaelis, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • MIchele Richman, RN, BSN, CCRP
    Protocol Navigator

  • Giselle Rodriguez, RN, BSN, CCRP
    Post baccalaureate Student

  • Jessica Stimely, M.A.
    Post Baccalaureate IRTA Student

  • Steve Wise, Ph.D.
    Visiting Professor

  • Goldy Yadav, B.S.
    Doctoral Student

  • 1) R Quentin, J-R King, E Sallard,N Fishman, R Thompson, E Buch,1 and LG. Cohen1 (2019)
  • Differential Brain Mechanisms of Selection and Maintenance of Information during Working Memory
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 2764-18
  • 2) M Bornnstrup, I Iturrate, R Thompson, G Cruciani, N Censor and LG Cohen (2019)
  • A Rapid Form of Offline Consolidation in Skill Learning
  • Current Biology, 29, 1-6
  • 3) Hussain SJ, Claudino L, Bönstrup M, Norato G, Cruciani G, Thompson R, Zrenner C, Ziemann U, Buch E, Cohen LG. (2018)
  • Sensorimotor Oscillatory Phase-Power Interaction Gates Resting Human Corticospinal Output.
  • Cereb Cortex, 10.1093/cercor/bhy255. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 4) Hamoudi M, Schambra HM, Fritsch B, Schoechlin-Marx A, Weiller C, Cohen LG, Reis J (2018)
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Motor Skill Learning but Not Generalization in Chronic Stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 32, 295-308
  • 5) Xu B, Sandrini M, Levy S, Volochayev R, Awosika O, Butman JA, Pham DL, Cohen LG. (2017)
  • Lasting deficit in inhibitory control with mild traumatic brain injury.
  • Sci Rep, 7, 14902
  • 6) Buch ER, Santarnecchi E, Antal A, Born J, Celnik PA, Classen J, Gerloff C, Hallett M, Hummel FC, Nitsche MA, Pascual-Leone A, Paulus WJ, Reis J, Robertson EM, Rothwell JC, Sandrini M, Schambra HM, Wassermann EM, Ziemann U, Cohen LG. (2017)
  • Effects of tDCS on motor learning and memory formation: A consensus and critical position paper.
  • Clin Neurophysiol, 128, :589-603
  • 7) Buch ER, Santarnecchi E, Antal A, Born J, Celnik PA, Classen J, Gerloff C, Hallett M, Hummel FC, Nitsche MA, Pascual-Leone A, Paulus WJ, Reis J, Robertson EM, Rothwell JC, Sandrini M, Schambra HM, Wassermann EM, Ziemann U, Cohen LG. (2017)
  • Effects of tDCS on motor learning and memory formation: A consensus and critical position paper.
  • Clin Neurophysiol, 128, :589-603
  • 8) Buch ER, Santarnecchi E, Antal A, Born J, Celnik PA, Classen J, Gerloff C, Hallett M, Hummel FC, Nitsche MA, Pascual-Leone A, Paulus WJ, Reis J, Robertson EM, Rothwell JC, Sandrini M, Schambra HM, Wassermann EM, Ziemann U, Cohen LG. (2017)
  • Effects of tDCS on motor learning and memory formation: A consensus and critical position paper.
  • Clin Neurophysiol, 128, :589-603
  • 9) Censor N, , Buch ER, Nader K, Cohen LG1 (2016)
  • Altered Human Memory Modification in the Presence of Normal Consolidation
  • Cereb Cortex. , 26, 3828-3837
  • 10) Harris-Love ML, Chan E, Dromerick AW, Cohen LG. (2016)
  • Neural Substrates of Motor Recovery in Severely Impaired Stroke Patients With Hand Paralysis.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 30, 328-38
  • 11) Saposnik G1, Cohen LG2, Mamdani M3, Pooyania S4, Ploughman M5, Cheung D6, Shaw J7, Hall J3, Nord P8, Dukelow S9, Nilanont Y10, De Los Rios F11, Olmos L12, Levin M13, Teasell R14, Cohen A3, Thorpe K3, Laupacis A3, Bayley M7; Stroke Outcomes Research Canada. (2016)
  • Efficacy and safety of non-immersive virtual reality exercising in stroke rehabilitation (EVREST): a randomised, multicentre, single-blind, controlled trial.
  • Lancet Neurol., 15, 1019-27
  • 12) Song S and LG Cohen (2014)
  • Practice and sleep form different aspects of skill
  • Nature Communications, 19;5, 3407
  • 13) Dayan E, Hamann JM, Averbeck BB, Cohen LG. (2014)
  • Brain structural substrates of reward dependence during behavioral performance
  • J Neurosci, 34, 16433-41
  • 14) Censor N, Horovitz SG and LG Cohen (2014)
  • Interference with existing memories alters offline intrinsic functional brain connectivity.
  • Neuron, 81, 69-76
  • 15) Soekadar S, Witkowsky M, Cossio EG, Birbaumer N, Robinson SE and LG Cohen (2013)
  • In vivo assessment of human brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents
  • Nature Communications, 4, 2032
  • 16) Dayan E*, Censor N*, Buch ER*, Sandrini M and LG Cohen (2013)
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation: from physiology to network dynamics and back
  • Nature Neuroscience, 16, 638-644
  • 17) Sandrini M, Censor N, Mishoe J, Cohen LG. (2013)
  • Causal role of prefrontal cortex in strengthening of episodic memories through reconsolidation.
  • Curr Biol, Nov 4;23(21), 2181-4
  • 18) Buch ER, Shanechi AM, Fourkas AD, Weber C, Birbaumer N and LG Cohen (2012)
  • Parietofrontal integrity determines neural modulation associated with grasping imagery after stroke
  • Brain, Feb;135(Pt 2), 596-614
  • 19) Carmena JM, Cohen LG. (2012)
  • Brain-machine interfaces and transcranial stimulation: future implications for directing functional movement and improving function after spinal injury in humans.
  • Handb Clin Neurol, 109, 435-44
  • 20) Dayan E & LG Cohen (2011)
  • Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning
  • Neuron, 72, 443-454
  • 21) Dimyan MA and LG Cohen (2011)
  • Neuroplasticity in the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke.
  • Nature Reviews Neurology, 7, 76-85
  • 22) Censor N, Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2011)
  • Modification of existing human motor memories is enabled by primary cortical processing during memory reactivation.
  • Curr Biol, Sep 14;20(17), 1545-9
  • 23) Fritsch B, Reis J, Martinowich K, Schambra HM, Ji Y, Cohen LG, Lu B. (2010)
  • Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: potential implications for motor learning.
  • Neuron, 66(2), 198-204
  • 24) Celnik P, Paik NJ, Vandermeeren Y, Dimyan M, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Effects of combined peripheral nerve stimulation and brain polarization on performance of a motor sequence task after chronic stroke.
  • Stroke, 40(5), 1764-71
  • 25) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Stefan K, Hummel F, Olivier F and LG Cohen. (2008)
  • Memory formation in the motor cortex ipsilateral to a training hand
  • Cerebral Cortex, 18, 1395-1406
  • 26) Celnik P, Webster B, Glasser DM, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of action observation on physical training after stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(6), 1814-20
  • 27) Perez M and LG Cohen (2008)
  • Activity-dependent changes in motor cortical circuits ipsilateral to a moving hand
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5631-40
  • 28) Conforto AB, Dos Anjos SM, Bernardo WM, Silva AAD, Conti J, Machado AG, Cohen LG (2018)
  • Repetitive Peripheral Sensory Stimulation and Upper Limb Performance in Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 32, 863-871
  • 29) Dayan E, López-Alonso V, Liew SL, Cohen LG (2018)
  • Distributed cortical structural properties contribute to motor cortical excitability and inhibition.
  • Brain Struct Funct., 223, 3801-3812
  • 30) Lopez-Alonso V, Liew SL, Fernández Del Olmo M, Cheeran B, Sandrini M, Abe M, Cohen LG. (2018)
  • A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations.
  • Front Neurosci., 12, 253
  • 31) Hussain SJ, Cohen LG. (2017)
  • Exploratory studies: a crucial step towards better hypothesis-driven confirmatory research in brain stimulation.
  • J Physiol, 595, 1013-1014
  • 32) Xu B, Sandrini M, Wang WT, Smith JF, Sarlls JE, Awosika O, Butman JA, Horwitz B, Cohen LG. (2016)
  • PreSMA stimulation changes task-free functional connectivity in the fronto-basal-ganglia that correlates with response inhibition efficiency.
  • Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3236-49
  • 33) Song S, Gotts SJ, Dayan E & Cohen LG (2015)
  • Practice structure improves unconscious transitional memories by increasing synchrony in a premotor network
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(8), 1503-12
  • 34) Sandrini M, Cohen LG, Censor N. (2015)
  • Modulating reconsolidation: a link to causal systems-level dynamics of human memories.
  • Trends Cogn Sci
  • 35) Song S, Gotts SJ, Dayan E, Cohen LG (2015)
  • Practice Structure Improves Unconscious Transitional Memories by Increasing Synchrony in a Premotor Network
  • J Cogn Neurosci, 8, 1503-12
  • 36) Hamann JM, Dayan E, Hummel FC, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Baseline frontostriatal-limbic connectivity predicts reward-based memory formation
  • Hum Brain Mapp, 35, 5921-31
  • 37) Soekadar SR, Witkowski M, Birbaumer N, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity
  • Cereb Cortex, PMID: 24626608
  • 38) Dayan E, Averbeck BB, Richmond BJ, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Stochastic reinforcement benefits skill acquisition
  • Learn Memory, 21, 140-2
  • 40) Song S, Sharma N, Buch E and LG Cohen (2011)
  • White Matter Microstructural Correlates of Superior Long-term Skill Gained Implicitly under Randomized Practice
  • Cerebral Cortex, Jul;22(7), 1671-7
  • 41) Harris-Love ML, Morton SM, Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2011)
  • Mechanisms of short-term training-induced reaching improvement in severely hemiparetic stroke patients: a TMS study.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, Jun;25(5), 398-411
  • 42) Floel A, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Recovery of function in humans: cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments after stroke.
  • Neurobiol Dis., 37(2), 243-51
  • 43) Saposnik G, Mamdani M, Bayley M, Thorpe KE, Hall J, Cohen LG, Teasell R; EVREST Steering Committee; EVREST Study Group for the Stroke Outcome Research Canada Working Group. Int (2010)
  • Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exercises in STroke Rehabilitation (EVREST): rationale, design, and protocol of a pilot randomized clinical trial assessing the Wii gaming system.
  • J Stroke, 5(1), 47-51
  • 44) Farias da Guarda SN, Cohen LG, da Cunha Pinho M, Yamamoto FI, Marchiori PE, Scaff M, Conforto AB (2010)
  • Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Corticomotor Excitability After Chronic Cerebellar Infarcts
  • Cerebellum, Epub ahead of print
  • 45) Saposnik G, Teasell R, Mamdani M, Hall J, McIlroy W, Cheung D, Thorpe KE, Cohen LG, Bayley M; Stroke Outcome Research Canada (SORCan) Working Group (2010)
  • Effectiveness of virtual reality using wii gaming technology in stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial and proof of principle
  • Stroke, 41(7), 1477-84.
  • 46) Wang W, Collinger JL, Perez MA, Tyler-Kabara EC, Cohen LG, Birbaumer N, Brose SW, Schwartz AB, Boninger ML, Weber DJ. (2010)
  • Neural interface technology for rehabilitation: exploiting and promoting neuroplasticity.
  • Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am, 21(1), 157-78
  • 47) Sehm B, Perez MA, Xu B, Hidler J, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Functional neuroanatomy of mirroring during a unimanual force generation task.
  • Cereb Cortex, 20(1), 34-45
  • 48) Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of functional recovery mechanisms after stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 24(2), 125-35
  • 49) Conforto AB, Ferreiro KN, Tomasi C, dos Santos RL, Moreira VL, Marie SK, Baltieri SC, Scaff M, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on motor function after subacute stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 24(3), 263-72
  • 50) Ragert P, Camus M, Vandermeeren Y, Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Modulation of effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation applied over primary motor cortex (M1) by conditioning stimulation of the opposite M1.
  • J Neurophysiol. , 102(2), 766-73
  • 51) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Interhemispheric inhibition between primary motor cortices: what have we learned?
  • J Physiol. , 587(Pt 4), 725-6
  • 52) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • The corticospinal system and transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke.
  • Top Stroke Rehabil. , 16(4), 254-69
  • 53) Camus M, Ragert P, Vandermeeren Y, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Mechanisms controlling motor output to a transfer hand after learning a sequential pinch force skill with the opposite hand.
  • Clin Neurophysiol. , 120(10), 1859-65
  • 54) Hummel FC, Heise K, Celnik P, Floel A, Gerloff C, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex.
  • Neurobiol Aging, [Epub ahead of print]
  • 55) Reis J, Schambra HM, Cohen LG, Buch ER, Fritsch B, Zarahn E, Celnik PA, Krakauer JW. (2009)
  • Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation.
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci, 106(5), 1590-5
  • 56) Schaefer M, Xu B, Flor H, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Effects of different viewing perspectives on somatosensory activations during observation of touch.
  • Hum Brain Mapp. , 30(9), 2722-30
  • 57) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.
  • Cortex, 45(9), 1065-71
  • 58) Hummel FC, Steven B, Hoppe J, Heise K, Thomalla G, Cohen LG, Gerloff C. (2009)
  • Deficient intracortical inhibition (SICI) during movement preparation after chronic stroke.
  • Neurology. , 72(20), 1766-72
  • 59) Tanaka S, Honda M, Hanakawa T, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Differential Contribution of the Supplementary Motor Area to Stabilization of a Procedural Motor Skill Acquired through Different Practice Schedules
  • Cereb Cortex, [Epub ahead of print]
  • 60) Kim JH, Lee HW, Cohen LG, Park KD, Choi KG. (2008)
  • Motor cortical excitability in patients with poststroke epilepsy.
  • Epilepsia, 49(1), 117-24
  • 61) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Stefan K, Hummel F, Olivier E, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Memory formation in the motor cortex ipsilateral to a training hand.
  • Cereb Cortex, 18(6), 1395-406
  • 62) Stefan K, Classen J, Celnik P, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Concurrent action observation modulates practice-induced motor memory formation.
  • Eur J Neurosci. , 27(3), 730-8
  • 63) Mazzocchio R, Meunier S, Ferrante S, Molteni F, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Cycling, a tool for locomotor recovery after motor lesions?
  • NeuroRehabilitation, 23(1), 67-80
  • 64) Perez MA, Tanaka S, Wise SP, Willingham DT, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Time-specific contribution of the supplementary motor area to intermanual transfer of procedural knowledge.
  • J Neurosci. , 28(39):, 9664-9.
  • 65) Conforto AB, Santos RL, Farias SN, Marie SK, Mangini N, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere in chronic stroke patients.
  • Clinics (Sao Paulo). , 63(6), 735-40
  • 66) Nielsen JB, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • The Olympic brain. Does corticospinal plasticity play a role in acquisition of skills required for high-performance sports?
  • J Physiol, 586(1), 65-70
  • 67) Celnik P, Webster B, Glasser DM, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of action observation on physical training after stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(6), 1814-20
  • 68) Reis J, Swayne OB, Vandermeeren Y, Camus M, Dimyan MA, Harris-Love M, Perez MA, Ragert P, Rothwell JC, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.
  • J Physiol., 586(2), 325-51
  • 69) Dimyan MA, Dobkin BH, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Emerging subspecialties: neurorehabilitation: training neurologists to retrain the brain.
  • Neurology, 70(16), e52-4
  • 70) Ragert P, Vandermeeren Y, Camus M, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Improvement of spatial tactile acuity by transcranial direct current stimulation.
  • Clin Neurophysiol. , 119(4), 805-11
  • 71) Buch E, Weber C, Cohen LG, Braun C, Dimyan MA, Ard T, Mellinger J, Caria A, Soekadar S, Fourkas A, Birbaumer N. (2008)
  • Think to move: a neuromagnetic brain-computer interface (BCI) system for chronic stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(3), 910-7
  • 72) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Mechanisms underlying functional changes in the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to an active hand.
  • J Neurosci, 28(22), 5631-40
  • 73) Floel A, Hummel F, Duque J, Knecht S, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Influence of somatosensory input on interhemispheric interactions in patients with chronic stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair., 22(5), 477-85
  • 74) Reis J, Robertson E, Krakauer JW, Rothwell J, Marshall L, Gerloff C, Wassermann E, Pascual-Leone A, Hummel F, Celnik PA, Classen J, Floel A, Ziemann U, Paulus W, Siebner HR, Born J, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Consensus: "Can tDCS and TMS enhance motor learning and memory formation?"
  • Brain Stimulat, 1(4), 363-369
  • 75) Celnik P, Hummel F, Harris-Love M, Wolk R, Cohen LG. (2007)
  • Somatosensory stimulation enhances the effects of training functional hand tasks in patients with chronic stroke.
  • Arch Phys Med Rehabil. , 88(11), 1369-76
  • 76) Perez M, Wise SP, Willingham DT and LG Cohen (2007)
  • Neurophyisological mechanisms involved in transfer of procedural knowledge
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1045-53
  • 77) Duque J, Murase N, Celnik P, Hummel F, Harris-Love M, Mazzocchio R, Olivier E and LG Cohen (2007)
  • Intermanual differences in movement-related interhemispheric inhibition
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 204-13
  • 78) Perez M, Tanaka S, Wise S, Sadato N, Tanabe HC, Willingham DT and LG Cohen. (2007)
  • Neural substrates underlying intermanual transfer of a newly acquired motor skill
  • Current Biology, 17, 1896-1902
  • 79) Hummel F, Voller B, Celnik P, Floel A, Giraux P, Gerloff C and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Effects of cortical stimulation on reaction time in chronic stroke
  • BMC Neuroscience, 7, 73-7
  • 80) Sawaki L, Wu C W-H, Kaelin-Lang A and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on use-dependent plasticity in chronic stroke
  • Stroke, 37, 246-7
  • 81) Wu C W-H, Seo H-J and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Influence of somatosensory stimulation on paretic hand function in chronic stroke
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 351-7
  • 82) Mazzocchio R, Kitago T, Liuggi G, Wolpaw JR and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Plastic changes in the human H reflex at rest following skillful cycling training
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 1682-91
  • 83) Hummel F and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation. A novel strategy to enhance neurorehabilitation after stroke?
  • Lancet Neurology , 5, 707-12
  • 84) Kaelin-Lang A, Sawaki L and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Role of voluntary drive in encoding an elementary motor memory
  • Journal of Neurophysiology, 93, 1099-1103
  • 85) Gandiga P, Hummel F and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 845-50
  • 86) Hidler J, Hodics T, Xu B, Dobkin B and LG Cohen (2006)
  • MR compatible force sensing system for real-time monitoring of wrist moments during fMRI testing
  • Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 155, 300-7
  • 87) Lotze MP, Grodd W, Rodden FA, Gut E, Schonle P-W, Kardatzki B and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Neuroimaging correlates of recovery of motor function in traumatic brain injury patients
  • Neurorehabiiltation and Neural Repair, 20, 14-23
  • 88) P, Stefan K, Hummel F, Duque J, Classen J and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Encoding a motor memory in the older adult by action observation
  • Neuroimage, 29, 677-684
  • 89) Voller B, Flöel A, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Wu, CW and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Contralateral hand anesthesia transiently improves post-stroke sensory deficits
  • Annals of Neurology, 59, 385-7
  • 90) Voller B, Flöel A, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Wu, CW and LG Cohen (2005)
  • Contralateral hand anesthesia transiently improves post-stroke sensory deficits
  • Annals of Neurology
  • 91) Stefan K, Cohen LG, Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Celnik P, Sawaki P, Ungerleider L and J Classen (2005)
  • Formation of a motor memory by action observation
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 9339-9346
  • 92) Floel A, Breitenstein C, Hummel F, Celnik P, Gingert C, Sawaki L, Knecht S and LG. Cohen (2005)
  • Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory
  • Annals of Neurology , 58, 121-130
  • 93) Wu C W-H, van Gelderen P, Hanakawa T, Yaseen Z and LG. Cohen (2005)
  • Enduring representational plasticity after somatosensory stimulation
  • Neuroimage, 27, 872-884
  • 94) Hummel F and LG Cohen. (2005)
  • Improvement of motor function with noninvasive cortical stimulation in a patient with chronic stroke
  • Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair , 19, 14-19
  • 95) Van Gelderen P, Wu C, Cohen LG, Hallett M and JH Duyn (2005)
  • Functional resolution and reproducibility of BOLD and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging , 54, 569-76
  • 96) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Dambrosia J, Murase N, Olivier E and LG Cohen. (2005)
  • Kinematically specific interhemispheric inhibition operating in the process of generation of a voluntary movement.
  • Cerebral Cortex, 15, 588-593
  • 97) Lee HW, Seo HJ, Cohen LG, Bagic A and WH Theodore (2005)
  • Cortical excitability during prolonged antiepileptic drug treatment and drug withdrawal
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 1105-12
  • 98) Hummel F, Celnik P, Giraux P, Floel A, Wu W-H, Gerloff C and LG Cohen (2005)
  • Effects of noninvasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke
  • Brain, 128, 490-499
  • 99) Baron J-C, Cohen LG, Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Johansen-Berg H, Loubinoux I, Marshall RS, and NS Ward (Writing Committee). (2004)
  • Neuroimaging in stroke recovery: a position paper from the First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery Cerebrovasc Diseases
  • Cerebrovasc Diseases , 18, 260-267
  • 100) Floel A, Nagorsen U, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Birbaumer N, Knecht S and LG Cohen. (2004)
  • Influence of somatosensory input on motor function in patients with chronic stroke
  • Ann Neurol , 56, 206-12
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